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Climate

The relief of Azerbaijan creates quite favorable conditions for the formation of a warm mild climate on the most part of the country: the Greater Caucasus range serves as natural barrier preventing cold masses of air from the North, and the Lesser Caucasus is preventing hot tropical air from the South. The highest average annual temperature of the air is generally recorded on the lowlands - Kur-Araz and Lankaran where it exceeds 14°C. Average January temperature in the lowlands exceeds 0C, but sometimes the temperature falls to - 20C.
July and August are the hottest months in Azerbaijan. Average temperature during July in the Kur-Araz lowlands, the west of Apsheron Peninsula and Priaraz (Arazyani) plains of Nakhchivan is 25 to 27 C. On some days when tropical air penetrates from the south temperatures on these plains can rise to between 40 and 43C.
Nakhchivan is characterized with a continental climate. Not only the highest, but also the lowest national temperature was recorded in Nakhchivan.
The distribution of rainfall is so uneven across the country that along with regions having 200 mm per year (south of Apsheron Peninsula) there are the other regions with 1600 mm per year (south of Lankaran lowland).
On Apsheron Peninsula the occurrence of strong stormy winds is frequent.
Nine types of climate out of eleven in the world exist in Azerbaijan, varying from dry and humid subtropical to the climate of upland tundra, with extremes of temperature from - 45 ?C in highland to +44 ?C in lowlands.
The Kur-Araz lowland, the Samur-Devechi lowland and the Apsheron Peninsula with Gobustan have the climate of semi-deserts and dry steppes with hot dry summer and mild winter, close to that of subtropical. The same type of climate but with cold winters is typical for the Priaraz (Arazyani) zone of Nakhchivan.
The foothills of the Greater and Lesser Caucasus have moderate warm climate with dry winters. A moderate warm climate with even rainfalls during the year dominates mainly in the forested zone of south and northeast slopes of the Greater Caucasus. A moderate warm climate with dry summer, but abundant rainfalls in other seasons, is characteristic for the humid subtropics of the Lankaran lowland and surrounding foothills of the Talysh mountains. A cold climate with dry winter is notable for northeast slopes of the Greater Caucasus (1,000-2,700m) and a considerable part of the Lesser Caucasus (1,400-2,700m). A cold climate with dry summer is characteristic for Nakhchivan.
The cold and wet climate of upland tundra prevails in the highlands of the Greater and Lesser Caucasus and partly in the Zangezur range of Nakhchivan.
All plains are divided into the zones of dry subtropics (embracing the main parts of plains) and humid subtropics (Alazan/Qanix -Agrichay valley and Lankaran lowlands).
All these features of the climate in Azerbaijan are determined not only by relief, but also by the peculiar geographical position, the circulating processes and variety of rocks and groundwater.

Meteorological information
Precipitation, mm

Circle Baku Guba Ganja Yevlakh Lenkeran Mingechevir
I 17,9 27,6 19,0 2,6 47,0 26,0
II 9,8 72,0 11,5 29,0 18,4 3,2
III 15,3 41,5 6,4 5,8 124,4 14,7
IV 39,0 47,3 55,1 47,7 76,9 71,2
V 28,2 75,2 42,7 26,7 107,2 64,8
VI 19,6 52,8 83,0 32,8 2,0 24,7
VII   8,5 2,0 0,3 3,0  
VIII 10,1 44,1 32,3 33,2 82,0 29,0
IX 23,9 40,3 7,2 6,0 42,3 3,5
X 43,3 123,9 6,2 21,7 179,2 21,5
XI 2,7 27,7 2,6 4,8 125,4 5,6
XII 183,9 45,5 11,4 22,3 228,8 40,4



Meteorological information
Duration of sun radiance

Circle Baku Guba Ganja Yevlakh Lenkeran Mingechevir
I 212,6 100,1 388,2 136,5 100,7 253,8
II 9,3 159,3 388,2 188,9 151,7 102,0
III 152,0 297,8 159,1 167,3 143,3 160,9
IV 82.5 84,9 402,3 121,7 64,1 126,0
V 211,3 180,5 220,2 227,6 205,3 232,7
VI 244,6 196,0 261,0 275,5 301,4 269,2
VII 289,6 290,4 314,4 340,5 355,4 370,4
VIII 258,5 181,9 231,6 248,4 250,2 234,6
IX 246,4 213,5 224,4 260,0 263,7 250,7
X 136,4 122,4 186,9 201,3 134,0 180,5
XI 117,5 116,2 163,0 171,8 133,9 161,3
XII 46,8 102,5 117,1 91,9 68,9 80,6



Meteorological information
Average temperature, per month ºC

Circle Baku Guba Ganja Yevlakh Lenkeran Mingechevir
I 4,0 0,1 2,9 3,0 4,7 3,9
II 7,6 4,3 6,8 7,2 7,2 7,1
III 9,6 6,7 10,6 11,2 10,2 10,9
IV 10,6 7,6 10,9 12,9 12,0 12,4
V 16,2 13,3 16,2 18,2 16,3 17,5
VI 21,8 18,5 22,0 24,4 22,5 24,0
VII 27,3 24,2 27,2 29,1 26,4 28,3
VIII 25,8 21,3 24,8 26,8 25,8 26,6
IX 23,9 15,9 23,0 26,1 23,1 24,5
X 18,5 13,7 17,0 18,3 18,8 18,6
XI 12,3 7,3 10,4 10,6 11,6 12,2
XII 1,4 3,0 0,2 2,1 1,5 1,7



     Average annual temperature +14, 5 ºC
     Average temperature in January +3, 2 ºC
     Average temperature in July +28 ºC
     Average annual precipitation 402 mm