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Geography

Geographical information of the Azerbaijan Republic


Azerbaijan is situated on the southeastern part of the Caucasus, which stretches from the Black to the Caspian Sea. The country ranges from the Greater Caucasus in the north to the Lesser Caucasus and Talysh Mountains in the south. The country shares borders with the Russian Federation (Dagestan) in the north, Georgia and Armenia in the west and south-west, Iran and Turkey in the south. The capital of the Azerbaijan Republic is the city of Baku. The total territory of the republic is 86.6 thousand sq.km. The Autonomous Republic of Nakhchivan and 9 economic-geographical regions are included into the administration of the Azerbaijan Republic.
The territory of the Azerbaijan Republic is rich with mineral resources such as oil, natural gas, coal, copper, chrome, cobalt, stone salt, ore, marble and so on. Azerbaijan is also known with its water resources as well.
Azerbaijan is surrounded by mountains: in the north by the Greater Caucasus with the highest peak of Bazar-dyuzy - 4,466m in the country, in the southwest by the Lesser Caucasus, and in the south by the Talysh Mountains. In the east , beyond the boundary of Azerbaijan, the Greater Caucasus and Lesser Caucasus are bound by the vast Kur-Araz lowland.
The present-day panoramic view of Azerbaijan, with its high mountains, volcanic highlands, deep canyons, plains, valleys and coastlines has formed over millions of years.
The southeast of the Lesser Caucasus, within the bounds of Azerbaijan, comprises of several highlands exceeding 2,000-3,000 m in height and a range of medium and low plateaus.On the southeast of the Lesser Caucasus rises the Karabakh range, with Boyuk Kir peak (2,725 m).Transcaucasian highlands extend far into the territories of Georgia and Armenia and stretch with two small areas into Azerbaijan.
The Kur-Araz lowland, which, like the Caspian, lies entirely below ocean level is surrounded by Karabakh and Mil plains on the west, at the foot of the Lesser Caucasus, and by the Shirvan plain at the foot of the Great Caucasus. At the foot of the Caucasus there are the lowlands of Gusar and Samur-Devechi and Sharur-Ordubad.
On the territory of Nakhchivan the bordering highland ranges - Zangazur and Daralayaz are rising.
In the South the Talysh mountains are of medium height. Their highest point Kyumyurkey mount is 2,477 m.
Some of the rivers of Azerbaijan pour into the Kur river, others flow at first into the Araz, the Kur's largest tributary, and others run straight to the Caspian Sea.
The biggest river in Azerbaijan is the Kur. It is 1,515 km long (900 km within Azerbaijan). The Araz flows into the Kur 236 km from its mouth. The Kur is the only river in Azerbaijan important for transportation. A navigable route was dug in 1964 in the southeastern direction.
The second river in size is the Araz, 1,072 km long. Like the Kur, the headwater of the Araz is in Turkey.
The largest hydropower stations - Mingechevir (the biggest in Transcaucasus) was built in 1953.
Underground waters used in agriculture of Azerbaijan are of importance in water supply of some districts.
The irrigating canal network begins from the Mingechevir reservoir - through the Upper Karabakh and the Upper-Shirvan canals.
The number of small lakes in Azerbaijan is about 250. The lakes in mountains are of tectonic and glacial origin, such as Goy-gol (at 1,556 m) and Big and Small Alagel (at 2,730 m). Along the Caspian coast there are Devechi, Gemushovan, Gil, Kildag lakes.
The Caspian Sea is the largest salt water lake on the planet. But its size and hydrological characteristics and origin give ground to call it a sea.
The soil surface of Azerbaijan has a spectrum of types from mountain-meadow soil, found in the alpine meadows, to dry soil of semi-deserts, and yellow earths of the Lankaran subtropics. Beneath mountainous forests and steppes there is highly fertile black earth. A peculiar type of soil, yellowish, is distinguishable in the Talysh and Lankaran regions.
The vegetation of the Azerbaijan Republic is extremely rich and diverse (more than 4100 types) with relict and endemic plants. Forests are mostly covered with the broad-leafed species (oak, chestnut, pine etc.)
The animal world is presented by variety of different mountain and plain species, such as Caucasian tur, wolf, deer and so on. The coast of the Caspian Sea is rich with bird species as well.

Geographical information of the Azerbaijan Republic
Total area 86.000 km 2(11,5% forests, 01.6 % water basins, 50 % agricultural areas, 27% pastures, 36.9 other areas)
Azerbaijan lies on 440 and 520 north,
Baku lies on the 40° parallel
The length of the coastline-713 km
Distance from Baku to North Pole- 5.550 km and to equator- 713 km

The biggest lakes, km?
Goy Gol_______ (0.23 km?)
Maralgol______ (0.23 km?)
Sarisu________ (67.0 km?)
Аg Gol________ (56.2 km?)
Jandargol_____ (12.5 km?)
Agzibirchala__ (37.0 km?)
Mehman _______ (5.0 km?)
Boyuk Shor____ (9.2 km?)
Hajigabul_____ (8.4 km?)

Reservoirs
Mingachevir (605 km?), Shamkir (116 km?), Arpachay (6, 3 km?), Sarsang (14, 2 km?)
The Caspian Sea, the biggest lake in the world, covers area of 400.000 km
Depth –1025 m
The highest mountain peak – Bazarduzu - 4,466 m
Border with other countries
Iran in the south - 618 km and Turkey in the south - west 11 km
Russia in the north - 289 km
Georgia in the north - west 480 km
Armenia in the west - 766 km
The Caspian Sea in the east - 825 km
The length of the broader of Azerbaijan with the Caspian Sea - 456 km

The biggest islands, km
Pirallahi __________ 14.4
Chilov____________ 13.5
Khara Zire_________ 3.5
Boyuk Zire________ 1.4
The biggest rivers, km2
Kur_1515(from source to place *
Araz______________1072 of flowing)
Alazan (Ganikh) _____413
Iori (Gabirri) ________389
Terter______________200
Samur______________216

Names of Cities Height over sea level, m Air temperature ( c ) Amount of precipitation, mm
January July average annual January July average annual
Baku
Guba
Shamakhi
Zakatala
Ganja
Shusha
Nakhchivan
Lenkeran
Salyan
2
550
750
487
312
1358
875
-20
-21
3,8
-1,8
-0,5
1
1,1
-1,5
-3,8
3,4
2,5
25,7
21,4
23,2
23,9
25,4
18,9
26,9
25,1
26,2
14,5
9,6
11,1
12,5
13,2
8,4
12,7
14,3
14,5
30
29
42
35
14
32
25
100
6
37
24
93
25
49
8
17
247
571
591
1036
282
711
271
1402